ASSERIA

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Na razmeđu današnje Bukovice i Ravnih Kotara smjestio se nekoć veleban grad ASSERIA. Jedan od najvažnijih liburnskih i kasnije rimskih naselja na području sjeverne Dalmacije, smješten  na području današnjeg sela Podgrađe nedaleko od  grada Benkovca. Grad se nalazio na važnoj cesti koja je vodila od kolonije Jader (Zadar) prema unutrašnjosti i rimskim municipalnim središtima Nedinumu (Nadin), Varvariji  (Bribir), odnosno dalje prema Scardoni (Skradin), vojnom logoru Burnumu (Ivoševci kod Kistanja) i dalje prema Saloni (Solin) glavnom gradu rimske provincije Dalmacije. U grad se ulazilo na njegovom sjeverozapadnom dijelu gdje su se nalazila starija gradska vrata. Njihovu je ulogu kasnije preuzeo slavoluk ugrađen u sjeverni bedem grada. Velebni ulaz u grad podignut je u čast cara Trajana oko 113.

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Glavni gradski trg, forum, nalazio se na jugozapadnom dijelu uz sam rub grada, bio je širok oko 30 metara. Danas se nad njim nalazi crkva sv. Duha, a na istom mjestu je utvrđeno postojanje starije ranokršćanske crkve. Tragovi foruma i njegov originalan pod  mogu se vidjeti i danas s južne strane crkve u čije je zidove uzidano mnoštvo rimskih kamenih spomenika – spolija. Grad je pitkom vodom bio opskrbljen akveduktom dugim oko 3 km, koji je vodu dovodio s izvora Čatrnja u današnjem selu Lisičiću. Osim akvedukta za opskrbu pitkom vodom koristile su se i cisterne za vodu od kojih je jedna i pronađena u novim istraživanjima.  Najimpresivniji dio Aserije danas su svakako njezine zidine široke oko 3 m. Na sjevernom dijelu perimetra sačuvane su u visini oko 4 m.

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Zanimljivi su i kasnoantički zidovi ispred bedema, nastali u vrijeme opće nesigurnosti i neizvjesnosti smiraja antičke civilazicije, kada je za njihovu gradnju upotrijebljeno sve ono što je građanima bilo pri ruci, od mnogih imposta (baza) i dijelova stupova, fragmenata arhitekture sve do skulptura i reljefa. Novija istraživanja otkrila su na prostoru sjevernog bedema i ostatke starijeg bedema iz vremena 5. st. pr. Kr, koji je građen od lomljenaca bez vezivnog materijala.

Asseria je značajna i po cipusima, vrsti liburnskog nadgrobnog spomenika kojih je najveći broj pronađen upravo na ovom području, a koji su se prema novim rezultatima istraživanja i izrađivali u Aseriji. Osim cipusa, tu su pronađeni i brojni drugi kameni spomenici: portretne stele, dekorativni ukrasi s javnih zdanja, žrtvene are i brojni drugi. Sve ovo svjedoči o jako razvijenoj kamenoklesarskoj privredi čija tradicija se zadržala do današnjih dana.

Asserija je danas najsjajniji biser u kruni bogate kulturno povijesne baštine benkovačkog kraja..


Asseria was founded in the pre-historic iron-age period. It was then an important settlement and center of the Liburnians, the Illyrian tribe that inhabited the area before the Romans. Scholars think that name Asseria originates from word in Illyrian that describes the “mast” or high position since it is located on 234 m high hill. It had a very prominent position on the road that connected the colony of Iader (the present day Zadar) with other the municipal centers like Nedinum (Nadin), Varvaria (Bribir) and the military outpost in Burnum (Ivoševci). The boundaries of the territory of Asseria reached as far north as the village of Bruška and east to Dobropoljci. The borders were established to control the pastures for livestock. Some border stones from the time of the Roman emperors Tiberius, Nero and Vespasianus, which marked the borderlines, have been found and preserved.

This ancient site is found some 6 kilometers from Benkovac, near the village of Podgrađe. It is about 600 meters long and about 150 meters wide. The main entrance was on the west side until, in 113 AD, a triumphal arch in honor of emperor Trajan was erected on the north side. It commemorated Emperor’s visit to Asseria on his way to the Dacian war.

Asseria is now slowly being excavated but it is simply incredible that such an important site is not being actively promoted and that foreign universities or museums are not participating in the works. It partially has to do with the attitude of local archaeologists who would be happiest people on Earth if all the finds are “theirs”… Unfortunately, their jealousy is preventing some spectacular places to be seen and the only way is through our tours.

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Today, Asseria is still quite impressive with it’s walls, later wall created from the rubble and monuments… Apparently, the refugees from Sirmium – that has fallen to the Huns in 5th century AD – have been telling stories of terrible atrocities so the Asserians, feeling unsafe as the Empire was shaking, created another wall in front of the old one. There have not been found any evidences of battle so it is believed that Asseria has just been abandoned…

Today, the megalithic walls tell the story of once rich city that slowly vanished and we can just hope that there will be people smart enough to start massive works on unearthing the walls, the streets, temples and mosaics of Asseria.

Izvor:

tz-benkovac.hr / secretdalmatia.wordpress.com

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One comment

  1. ASSERIA KAMEN, Benkovac Croatia

    Liked by 2 people

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